Medical Microbiology and Immunology

A person responsible for the delivery, development, and quality of the study programme: 

doc. MUDr. Mária Bucová, CSc., mim. prof. 

Institute of Immunology FM CU, Odborárske nám. 14, 811 08  Bratislava



Teachers of the profile subject:

doc. et doc. MUDr. Adriana Liptáková, PhD., MPH

doc. RNDr. Vladimíra Ďurmanová, PhD.

doc. Mgr. Ivana Shawkatová, PhD.


Study advisor of the study programme: 

doc. MUDr. Mária Bucová, CSc., mim. prof. (; personal contact after agreement via e-mail)


List of the supervisors:

doc. MUDr. Mária Bucová, CSc., mim. prof., doc. et doc. MUDr. Adriána Liptáková, PhD., MPH, doc. RNDr. Vladimíra Ďurfinová, PhD., doc. Mgr. Ivana Shawkatová, PhD. 


Place/s of realisation of the study programme:

The Medical Faculty, Comenius University in Bratislava and its parts seat, including clinical workplaces, which are part of university hospitals providing an education of students at Faculty of Medicine, CU in Bratislava, with which the university has concluded ‘Contracts on practical training’ (University Hospital Bratislava, National Institute for Children's Diseases, Merciful Brothers University Hospital, St. Elizabeth Cancer Institute, National Oncological Institute, National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease)


Awarded academic degree: doctor ("philosophiae doctor", in short, "PhD. ")


The language in which the programme is organised: Slovak, English


The standard length of study in academic years: four years (internal form) / five years (external form)

Graduate profile and learning objectives:  

The doctoral study programme 'Medical Microbiology and Immunology' aims to study resistance mechanisms to antimicrobial media, various therapeutical equivalents as the phage therapy and auto vaccines. The molecular genetics of microorganisms focuses on the quantitative following nucleic acids and correlation with administered antiviral drugs. Another aim in immunology is to study immunogenetic predisposition (gene polymorphism, cytokine, chemokine polymorphisms) and immunopathogeneses of infectious and non-infectious diseases accompanied by chronic inflammation as sepsis, chronic pulmonary diseases, neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, autoimmune, neoplastic diseases, allergies, and others. While another aim is the study of the connections of stated conditions with psychoneuroendocrine and bowel microbiome.

After completion of the doctoral study in this study programme, the student will achieve knowledge in the field of medical microbiology, molecular genetics, infectology, and immunology focused on mechanisms and pathological processes, which run in the human body at infectious diseases caused by bacteria or viruses as well as at non-infectious diseases with an essential role of acute and chronic inflammation and bowel microbiome. The student will master the cultivation of microorganisms, serological reactions, CR proof of microorganisms, mRNA and DNA detection. From the view of immunology, he/she will master immunogenetic predisposition, immunopathogeneses, the role of immunity and inflammation in studied diseases, PCR techniques, detection of gene polymorphisms, sequencing work with flow cytometry, detection of soluble mediators – cytokines, chemokines, modern inflammatory markers and other with Eliza technique and others.

The main aim of these activities will be theoretical as well as practical mastering of methods for processing biological material for detailed analyses (especially microscopic techniques, cultivations, molecular genetics DNA analysis, molecular-genetic testing at the level of DNA and mRNA, DNA implementation and hybridisation techniques, gene expression measurement, sequential analyses, and product identification. Also, immunological methods as the isolation of plasma, serum, cell, DNA. RNA, PCR methods, sequencing, ELIZA work with flow cytometry, histopathological examinations, and so on.). In the study, the students learn to form independently a scientific problem, form a scientific hypothesis, prepare, and realise a scientific experiment, use biological model organisms and tissue cultures at the research, objectively assess obtained results and their statistical analysis.

The graduates of the study programme will master analyses of human biological samples in scientific and diagnostic work, diagnostic procedures of infectious diseases, differential diagnosis, detection of origination, clinical manifestation, molecular, biochemical, microbiological nature of infectious diseases also with the potential of neoplastic disease origination in particular age groups, at respecting ethical, legal, and social norms. From the view of immunology, there will be examined samples – blood, liquor, bronchoalveolar liquid, pleural liquid, lavages of ears, cavities, tumour tissues, where the cells of the immune system will be examined as well as various humoral factors, all these after the approval by the ethical board and the patients' consent. The graduates from this branch will master complicated diagnostic and analytical methods, statistically evaluate gained results, to analyse and interpret them. They will publish and give lectures. They will participate in various lectures on microbiology and immunology and have broader scientific and research scope of knowledge. They will know how to plan experiments, and after completion of doctoral studies, they can lead thesis writers. Their creative, experimental work contributes to developing science and scientific knowledge and its application in various medical branches as in laboratories of clinical microbiology or immunology in various institutions.


1.        At present, the graduates are required mainly at workplaces in healthcare (clinics or departments of clinical microbiology and immunology, workplaces of laboratory medicine, etc.).

2.        Graduates from the doctoral studies might find employment in the frame of education as university teachers or scientific research workers at universities focused on medicine, healthcare science, public healthcare, and biology with the possibility to acquire scientific-pedagogical degree associated professor, and professor. 

3.        Graduates from the study programme Medical microbiology and immunology at the Faculty of Medicine CU in Bratislava master a broad spectrum of scientific methods used in microbiology, genetic, molecular, and biological research, who can creatively apply in their work and contribute to the development of the scientific knowledge. They are qualified for successful employment in the team leading on a broader spectrum of scientific and research institutions focused on medical, veterinary, or pharmaceutical sciences. They professionally work creatively in scientific institutes of the Slovak Academy of Science at various levels of research.

4.        After finishing the doctoral study, they can extend their education by completing accredited specialised education in healthcare as a doctor – medical microbiology and a doctor – clinical immunologist and allergist.  They provide patients with allergic diseases and immunity disorders, diagnostic and medical care.

Although the specialisation branch Clinical Immunology and Allergology is one branch, it has two specialities - besides clinical also laboratory. Therefore, they can also be employed in laboratories as managers. The same is valid for laboratory and diagnostic methods in clinical microbiology; the graduate might hold an important role in laboratory medicine as a laboratory diagnostician


Evaluation of the study programme quality by employers:

A request to assess the quality of the submitted study programme was sent to selected employers to express their opinion on the need for a new doctoral study programme focused on medical biology and clinical genetics. Delivered letters are available at the Department of scientific-research activities, doctoral studies and international relationships of the Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava