Pathological Anatomy and Forensic Medicine

A person responsible for the delivery, development, and quality of the study programme:

prof. MUDr. Pavel Babál, CSc.

Institute of pathological anatomy FM CU and UHB, Sasinkova 4, Bratislava, email: 


Teachers of the profile subject:

prof. MUDr. Jozef Šidlo, PhD.

MUDr. Pavol Janega, PhD.


Study advisor of the study programme:

prof. MUDr. Pavel Babál, CSc., e-mail: (personal contact after agreement via e-mail)


List of the supervisors:

prof. MUDr. Pavel Babál, CSc., prof. MUDr. Jozef Šidlo, PhD., MUDr. Pavol Janega, PhD., prof. MUDr. Ľudovít Danihel, PhD., prof. MUDr. Štefan Galbavý, DrSc., doc. MUDr. Zuzana Čierna, PhD.


Place/s of realisation of the study programme:

The Medical Faculty, Comenius University in Bratislava and its parts seat, including clinical workplaces, which are part of university hospitals providing an education of students at Faculty of Medicine, CU in Bratislava, with which the university has concluded ‘Contracts on practical training’ (University Hospital Bratislava, National Institute for Children's Diseases, Merciful Brothers University Hospital, St. Elizabeth Cancer Institute, National Oncological Institute, National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease)


Awarded academic degree: doctor ("philosophiae doctor", in short, "PhD. ")


The language in which the programme is organised: Slovak, English


The standard length of study in academic years: four years (internal form) / five years (external form)


Graduate profile and learning objectives:  

The graduate of the study program acquires abilities to use scientific methods of research in the area of pathological anatomy and forensic medicine, with the following specifications:

-          Identification of pathogenesis, etiology, morphological changes in pathological processes and their relations, manifestations of diseases at the present level of knowledge in the world, their course, including healing and response to therapy, and prediction of their prognosis

-          Theoretical and practical implementation of methods of processing of biological materials for morphological analysis, including staining processes, immunohistochemistry and enzyme histochemistry, in situ hybridization, electron microscopy and morphometry

-          Recognition of morphological principles of diseases processes at the cellular, subcellular and genetic levels

-          Development of principles of individual and team research work, ethics and social part of the work

-          Application of acquired knowledge in praxis, development of individual scientific discipline

-          Organization of scientific experiment, experiment on laboratory animals, tissue culture

-          Correct evaluation of morphological and biochemical findings, their interpretation and statistical processing

-          Improvement of diagnostic algorithms

In addition for forensic medicine:

-          Recognition of effects of violence effect on human organism, its outer and inner manifestations, including prediction of prognosis of violence in living individuals

-          Recognition of effects of poisons, psychoactive substances and other xenobiotics on human organism



Graduates from the study programme Pathological anatomy and Forensic medicine at the Faculty of Medicine CU in Bratislava master a broad spectrum of scientific methods used in biomedical research, which they can creatively apply in their work and contribute to the development of the scientific knowledge. They are qualified for successful employment in the team leading on a broader spectrum of scientific and research institutions focused on medical, veterinary, or pharmaceutical sciences. They are professionally prepared to work creatively in scientific institutes of the Slovak Academy of Sciences at various research levels.

Other employments that, however, require graduation from an accredited study program of specialization study in medical profession, represent physicians – a pathologist or forensic medicine doctor. 


Evaluation of the study programme quality by employers:

A request to assess the quality of the submitted study programme was sent to selected employers to express their opinion on the need for a new doctoral study programme focused on medical biology and clinical genetics. Delivered letters are available at the Department of scientific-research activities, doctoral studies and international relationships of the Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava.