Anatomy, Histology and Embryology

A person responsible for the delivery, development, and quality of the study programme:

prof. RNDr. Ivan Varga, PhD. et PhD. 

Institute of histology and embryology, Faculty of Medicine CU, Sasinkova 4, Bratislava

email :


Teachers of the profile subject:

prof. MUDr. Štefan Polák, CSc.

doc. et doc. MUDr. Eliška Kubíková, PhD., MPH

doc. MUDr. Zora Haviarová, PhD.

RNDr. Marianna Danková, PhD.


Study advisor of the study programme:

RNDr. Marianna Danková, PhD., e-mail: (personal contact after agreement via e-mail)


List of the supervisors: 

prof. RNDr. Ivan Varga, PhD. et PhD., prof. MUDr. Štefan Polák, CSc., doc. et doc. MUDr. Eliška Kubíková, PhD., MPH, doc. MUDr. Zora Haviarová, PhD., RNDr. Marianna Danková, PhD., doc. RNDr. Peter Weismann, PhD., MVDr. Ján Líška, PhD., prof. RNDr. Vanda Repiská, PhD., doc. MUDr. Daniel Böhmer, PhD., doc. RNDr. Ľuboš Danišovič, PhD.


Place/s of realisation of the study programme:

The Medical Faculty, Comenius University in Bratislava and its parts seat, including clinical workplaces, which are part of university hospitals providing an education of students at Faculty of Medicine, CU in Bratislava, with which the university has concluded ‘Contracts on practical training’ (University Hospital Bratislava, National Institute for Children's Diseases, Merciful Brothers University Hospital, St. Elizabeth Cancer Institute, National Oncological Institute, National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease) 


Awarded academic degree: doctor ("philosophiae doctor", in short, "PhD. ")


The language in which the programme is organised: Slovak, English


The standard length of study in academic years: four years (internal form) / five years (external form)


Graduate profile and learning objectives:  

The graduate of the study program acquires abilities to use scientific methods of research in the area of pathological anatomy and forensic medicine, with the following specifications:

-          Identification of pathogenesis, etiology, morphological changes in pathological processes and their relations, manifestations of diseases at the present level of knowledge in the world, their course, including healing and response to therapy, and prediction of their prognosis

-          Theoretical and practical implementation of methods of processing of biological materials for morphological analysis, including staining processes, immunohistochemistry and enzyme histochemistry, in situ hybridization, electron microscopy and morphometry

-          Recognition of morphological principles of diseases processes at the cellular, subcellular and genetic levels

-          Development of principles of individual and team research work, ethics and social part of the work

-          Application of acquired knowledge in praxis, development of individual scientific discipline

-          Organization of scientific experiment, experiment on laboratory animals, tissue culture

-          Correct evaluation of morphological and biochemical findings, their interpretation and statistical processing

-          Improvement of diagnostic algorithms

In addition for forensic medicine:

-          Recognition of effects of violence effect on human organism, its outer and inner manifestations, including prediction of prognosis of violence in living individuals

 -          Recognition of effects of poisons, psychoactive substances and other xenobiotics on human organism



Graduates of the presented doctoral study program are currently in demand mainly at the workplaces of the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Education. Graduates of doctoral studies can apply within the Ministry of Education as university teachers or researchers at universities with a focus on medicine, health sciences, public health and biology. Graduates of the presented study program at the Medical Faculty of ComeniusUniversity in Bratislava master a wide range of scientific methods used in biomedical research, which are able to apply creatively in their work and thus contribute to the development of scientific knowledge. They have the prerequisites for successful application in leading teams in a wide range of scientific and research institutions focused on medical, veterinary or pharmaceutical sciences, they are professionally prepared to work creatively in scientific institutes of the Slovak Academy of Sciences at various levels of research. Current research in the field of anatomy, histology and embryology can be divided into several basic areas, from which it is clear that the graduates can find employment:

• clinical anatomy - the introduction of microsurgical techniques and endoscopic procedures and the development of imaging methods require a new perspective and more detailed knowledge of anatomy than in the past

• developmental biology - knowledge of the role of signaling molecules and transcription factors allows a better understanding of the development of individual organs, but also the emergence of congenital malformations and other pathological conditions (eg molecular mechanisms of epithelial transformation in the mesenchyme, which is a fundamental event in early embryonic development for cancer metastasis)

• modern research in histology - with the application of new chemical, biological, immunological and physical methods to research, such as immunohistochemistry, elemental (EDAX) tissue analysis, in vitro cell and tissue culture methods or ever-improving electron microscopy methods


• clinical embryology and reproductive medicine - clinical embryology is a department that works with oocytes, sperm and embryos outside the body to fertilize a woman - infertility treatment. However, this modern field today involves much more, including the storage (cryopreservation) of germ cells and embryos, as well as genetic testing before embryo implantation


Evaluation of the study programme quality by employers: 

A request to assess the quality of the submitted study programme was sent to selected employers to express their opinion on the need for a new doctoral study programme focused on medical biology and clinical genetics. Delivered letters are available at the Department of scientific-research activities, doctoral studies and international relationships of the Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University in Bratislava